Facts about Zambian correctional facilities
Imprisonment is difficult to endure all over the world, but in resource poor countries, the conditions of imprisonment can be desperate. The African prisons generally suffer from very poor and dilapitated constructions. Overcrowding is at very high levels, many of the buildings stemming back from colonial times, where the number of inmates was much lower. Imprisonment is difficult to endure all over the world, but in resource poor countries, the conditions of imprisonment are cause of significant concern. Other reasons for overcrowding is the large proportion of remand prisoners - prisoners who are awaiting trial. About 30% of the inmate population in Zambia are remandees.
Zambian prisons are no worse than the average Sub Saharan African prison. In fact in some ways better, levels of torture being quite low. The current command of Zambia Correctional Service is known to be modern and supportive of outside help. However, inhumane treatment due to the poor conditions of imprisonment is a concern. At the moment the Zambian Correctional Service holds more than 21,000 inmates (2018), and they try their best to do what they can within their limited means. Currently, ZCS have 3050 staff members, 25 health facilities in the more than 80 institutions around the country, meaning that many prisons have no health facilities at all.
Overcrowding is very significant. In some facilities it is up to 600% of capacity, causing not only stress but physical ailments such as scabies, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases are spread at alarming rate. HIV/AIDS rates are high, though the current prevalence is uncertain, but the last national survey showed a 27% prevalence rate. Water supply is eradicate in some prisons, and this leads to poor hygiene. Soap, detergents and disinfectants are a rare commodity. Lack of hygiene of course contributes to the health problems.
The food provided by Zambia Correctional Service is not sufficient, making food donations from relatives necessary for the individual prisoner. However, due to poverty and stigma many inmates are left to fend for themselves. Malnutrition causes amongst other diseases the condition 'swollen legs' which ultimately has a deadline outcome, if left untreated. Death can be a very real outcome of a prison sentence.
The Zambia Correctional Service does its best to alleviate the problems, yet they face significant challenges in providing for the inmate population. In the mid 2000's government implemented and 'open door policy' to open more up to the public and to get international organisations and civil society to contribute to improving the situation.
Ubumi Prisons Initiative is one of the organisations which have been allowed into prisons, and has also gained the trust of the current command to work relatively freely within the correctional facilities for the benefit of the inmates. Ubumi is very privileged in the sense that we receive all the necessary support in terms of access and permissions to do our work.
Facts about circumstantial children
Circumstantial Children is a term that describes the female prisoners' children who come with their mothers into prison. They are not in conflict with the law but their mothers' circumstances place them in prison. So to distinguish them from the children who fall in conflict with the law the term circumstantial child is used to describe this group.
A study conducted in 2010 (Simooya 2010) showed that about of the females incarcerated 6.8% were pregnant, and of these about 50% received medication to prevent HIV infection to their unborn child. 12% decide to bring their children with them in prison. Many bring their children, because they are still breastfeeding and/or because they do not have anyone in their social network to take care of them. In 2018, there was an average of 70 children in all Zambia's correctional facilities.
However, the prison regulations do not provide for the childrens' welfare but leaves them under the discretion of the Officer in Charge, who is often dependent on outside help. For instance, no extra food is provided for circumstantial children, and the children have to share their mother's food ration.
The needs of these children include basic needs such as nutrition, education, recreation and conducive accomodation as they sleep with their mothers in already congested cells or dormitories. A concerning issue is also that the growing up in prison can be damaging to a child's social development. This however does not mean that Ubumi is against children staying with their mothers, because sometimes it is the best option.
Upon leaving the prison, the children (with their mothers) get back to main stream of the society, but the children often end up going in compounds with their mothers, who in many cases are street vendors selling merchandises in the street without any adequate care to them.
Children who leave prisons by the age of 4
When children reach the age of 4 they have to leave prison, even if their mothers stay behind. This leaves some children in a very difficult situation, if there is noone to take care of them.
There are no clear guidelines reg circumstantial children leaving prisons without mothers. The prison Act has the rule that allows a child to be with their mother up to 4 years if there is no where a child can be left and above 5 years such a child shall be handed over to social welfare offices department to facilitate a child to safer institutions mainly the orphanages under foster care. However, in a country as poor as Zambia this is not without problems.
Facts about the seriously ill
Inmates suffer immensely due to the lack of food, basic necessities and due to health problems and overcrowding. Mukobeko Maximum Prison is one of the prisons most affected by ill-health and malnutrition. Statistics from 2010 show a general HIV prevalence rate of 27% in Zambian prisons, compared to a general population rate of about 12%. TB rates are high and malnutrition is a major problem. Inmates can not survive imprisonment in the long run based on the food Zambia Correctional Service provides. This means that inmates are depend on outside help or eachother for their survival. Many inmates share their food, but there is not enough food regardless, and inmates have to live in constant fear of death.
In the bigger prisons there are prison clinics which offers basic services, and has some medication available. There is some support for HIV/AIDS/TB patients, but drugs are at times irregularly supplied, which causes the risk of multi-resistence. Lack of nutritious food also poses a major challenge to taking the medication provided and to health in general. It is necessary to take the drugs with food, otherwise patients feel very ill, and the medication can not work efficiently.
Ubumi's work with nutrition does not discriminate. We focus on all patient groups, who need help. In general, the clinical officer or nurse in each facility aided by the inmate coordinators determine who needs to be on our programme.
Ubumi also works to prevent outbreaks of infections - including diarhoeal diseases and worms through improving hygiene. We also work to increase access to clean drinking water.
Inmates taking the lead in changing the lives of others
Inmates are not only passive recipients of outside aid. They take on reponsibility for others in many ways. There is little doubt that imprisonment is very harsh leaving many to fend for themselves. Yet, care comes in different shapes. It can be the prisoners who share their food. Prisoners who help the most vulnerable with their own small means. But this is not the only way prisoners work actively to improve the lives of their fellow inmates. Schools are run by inmates, serving as teachers. Inmate Psycho-social Counsellors are educated to support inmates who have problems. In our project for the ill, volunteer inmates lead and support the project as coordinators and as caregivers.
More information and useful links
Ubumi Prisons Initiative works knowledge based. The below list is compiled for your interest. Ubumi Prisons Initiative takes no responsibility for the content of the information, unless written by Ubumi Prisons Initiative staff.
Literature on African prisons
Ayete-Nyampong L: Entangled governance practices and the illusion of producing compliant inmates in the correctional centres for juvenile and young offenders in Ghana, Prison Service Journal, March 2014, Issue 212, p 27-32
Gear S: Manhood, Violence and Coercive Sexualities in Men’s Prisons: Dynamics and Consequences Behind Bars and Beyond, Association of Concerned African Scholars (16 September, 2009). http://concernedafricanscholars.org)
Ibrahim A et al: Assessment of mental distress among prison inmates in Ghana’s correctional system: a cross-sectional study using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, International Journal of Mental Health Systems 2015, 9:17
Jefferson A: Discussion paper, towards humane prisons, a paper based on presentations made and discussion with members of Community Association for Psycho-social Services (CAPS) on Kailahun and Kono, Sierra Leone, May-June 2009
Jefferson A: Prison Officer Training and Practice in Nigeria – Contention, Contradiction and Re-imagining Reform Strategies, Punishment and Society, vol. 9(3), Sage Publications. London, 2007: p 253-269
Jefferson A and Gaborit L 2015: Human Rights in Prisons - Comparing Institutional Encounters in Kosovo, Sierra Leone and the Philippines, Palgrave Studies in Prisons and Penology, Palgrave Macmillan, UK
Jolofani D and deGabriele: HIV/AIDS in Malawi Prisons – a study of HIV transmission and care of prisoners with HIV/AIDS in Zomba, Blantyre and Liliongwe Prisons, Expressions, Penal Reform International, Paris, France, September 1999
Kalonga E, Assistant Commissioner: Prisons and Human Rights in Zambia – The System, Reforms and Challenges, Human Rights Issues and Complaint and Monitoring Mechanism. Human Rights Workshop, Danish Institute for Human Rights, Copenhagen, June 2009
Onyemocho A et al.: Effect of Health Education Intervention on Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and Risky Sexual Behaviours amongst Prison Inmates in Kaduna State, Nigeria, International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 2014, volume 11, no 1, pp 181-192
Simooya O: Aggressive Awareness Campaigns May Not be Enough for HIV Prevention in Prisons - Studies in Zambia Suggest Time for Evidence Based Interventions, The Open Infectious Diseases Journal, 2014, 8, 1-7
UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment 2009: Interim Report on Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment, UN Doc, A/64/215, 3 Aug 2009